Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill


Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill Biography - On That Day

Profession : Soldier/ Author / British Prime Minister

Born : 1874-November-30

Birthplace : Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England

Nationality : British


Biography :

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was a British statesman, soldier, and author. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1900 to 1964, except between 1922 and 1924. He represented a total of five constituencies. Churchill rallied the people of the United Kingdom during World War II and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory against the Axis Powers.

Churchill was a member of the British aristocracy as a direct descendant of the 1st Duke of Marlborough on his father's side. His father was Lord Randolph Churchill, and his mother was Jennie, a daughter of Leonard Jerome, a wealthy American businessman. Lord Randolph Churchill had been elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Woodstock, representing the Conservative Party in 1873.  

Initially, Churchill began his academics at St George's School in Ascot, Berkshire, but his behavior and academics were poor. He transferred to Brunswick School in Hove in 1884. His academic performance improved here. In April 1888, he narrowly passed the entrance exam for Harrow School. Later, he entered the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, on his third attempt. In September 1893, he was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry. Churchill married Clementine Churchill in 1908.
  
Churchill joined the British Army in 1895. He was elected a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. But he defected to the Liberals in 1904. Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade and Home Secretary in H. H. Asquith's Liberal Government. During the First World War, he performed duties as First Lord of the Admiralty. As First Lord of the Admiralty, he executed the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign, which caused his temporary departure from government. After, he performed duties successively as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, and Secretary of State for the Colonies, directing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and British foreign policy in the Middle East. Then, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government.

In the 1930s, Churchill was out of government and took the lead in British rearmament to counter the growing threat of militarism in Nazi Germany. He was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty during the Second World War. In 1940, Neville Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister, after losing a confidence vote in the House of Commons. Later, Winston Churchill became as British Prime Minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain on May 10th, 1940.

During World War II, Churchill became famous for his rallying speeches, such as "we shall fight on the beaches" and "this was their finest hour." Also, Churchill was crucial in increasing British morale and inspiring resistance to Nazi Germany. Then, Churchill formed a national government and, he oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against the Axis powers. As a result, the Allied could obtain victory in 1945 from World War II. In the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition due to the defeat of the Conservatives. Churchill returned as British Prime Minister in 1951. He resigned as Prime Minister in 1955 due to declining health. Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 for his historical and biographical work. Churchill was also the first honorary citizen of the United States and one of the greatest prime ministers in the United Kingdom.


Died : 1965-January-24

Cause of Death : Stroke

Place of Death : Kensington, London, United Kingdom